What is a HEPA Filter and how does it work?

Coronavirus taught us to wear masks when going outside, which is a good habit. Due to this, some eye-visible dirt does not go inside the nose and mouth. But, what about microscopic particles present in the air, which can be dangerous if you are allergic to dust or dirt. A face mask is definitely not for this!!! Moreover, wearing it all the time may lead to serious health issues.

Air pollution is a severe matter of concern, and this is why HEPA filters come. Hence, if you are concerned about indoor air quality, whether your living space where you spend most of your time or your working space, then a HEPA filter will definitely look up the indoor air quality.

What is a HEPA filter?

HEPA is an abbreviation for High-Efficiency Particulate Air that typically works as an automatic pleated air filter. These filters are usually plastic fibers or borosilicate glass arranged in a non-woven manner on a fiber mat. This air filter can trap the tiniest airborne particles and remove 99.9 % of dust or bacteria from the air with a high-efficiency rate.

It’s just a simple explanation on HEPA Filters. Keep reading to know more about it- how does it work, its benefits, which appliances use these filters, and why is it necessary?

How do HEPA filters work?

HEPA filters are not like a strainer that filters out larger particles and passes smaller particles. It actually works by filtering harmful airborne particles such as dust, dirt, pollen, pet hairs, tobacco smoke, etc., from the high flow of air through a fine fiber filter. 

These particles are trapped through various processes like diffusion, interception, or impaction. 

The microscopic particles in the air are seized through the dispersal (diffusion) method. In this method, the particles clash with the gas molecules, which eventually reduces small airborne particles’ speed. Due to which these fibers get stuck in the fiber mats, and we get filtered pure air.

The smaller particles are captured through an interception method, while the larger particles are captured directly without impacting. Most of the other unsafe particles are also accumulated through electrostatic attraction.

Where are these filters used? 

Based on its tremendous air sanitization working, HEPA filters are used in common home appliances such as air purifiers, vacuum cleaners, and HVAC systems. It captures and holds harmful particles with 99% efficacy.

These filters are also used for commercial purposes as well. An application that requires pollution control increases the utility of HEPA filters such as medical devices, nuclear, hard disk drive manufacturing, hospitals, pharmaceuticals products, and vehicles.

The other machines that can use these filters are commercial dry/wet vacuums, air scrubbers, and dehumidifiers. What’s more, HEPA filters are also helpful in restoring the aftereffect of fire or any water damage, high VOCs, and heavy smoke infiltration.

Benefits of HEPA filter

We inhale many different pollutants and irritants in our homes, so air filtration is very significant. HEPA filters are already a tested product that ensures its excellence and reliability. It effectively captures the air impurities and improves the indoor air quality, so you breathe fresh.

Reasons to Choose a HEPA Filter

Many reasons force us to use the HEPA filtration technique. Whether using a vacuum cleaner to clean an entire home or using an air purifier for indoor air refining, HEPA filters work better than other filtration methods.

  1. Firstly, if you are a new parent or have toddlers at home, the HEPA filter is mandatory, especially in metro cities. This is because it will destroy air impurities with 100% effectiveness and make it safe to breathe. 
  1. Furthermore, HEPA filters are helpful to reduce smoke particles, and if the air purifier includes a carbon filter inside, it gives more benefit as it removes gases, fumes, and others.
  1. Scattered pet hairs here and there can be harmful, and cleaning them thoroughly is not just a matter of broom and dusting. Vacuum cleaners with HEPA filters can trap every single pet dander from the air. Besides, an air purifier with a carbon and HEPA filter will remove allergens and odor-causing pet dander to the extent.
  1. More to the point, if you are allergic to dust or dirt, only a good HEPA air purifier will provide you satisfactory results. It will remove every tiny dust particle from the air and effectively destroy widespread indoor allergens like pollen, fabrics, dust mites, pet dander, mold spores, etc. Therefore, an advanced hyper-HEPA air purifier is required for allergy sufferers as it can let you enjoy a safe place from the repulsive symptoms.

Other Reasons to Choose a HEPA Filter

HEPA filtration is important for some other common situations like:

High Chemical Environment

You need it more commercially because excess chemical odor in the air causes severe allergies. Unfortunately, these allergens are also causing redness and irritation in the eyes, conjunctivitis, and other skin allergies, including eczema. HEPA filters are designed for the same purpose. They include activated carbon infused with activated alumina or zeolite, potassium permanganate, and potassium iodide, which effectively lowers the effect of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the air.

After Effect of Dampness

Water damage can be a reason for mold formation. Wherever the dampness is in the house, it is harmful to health as it gives birth to bacteria, fungus, and other microorganisms. And here, HEPA filters will help you to get rid of these hazardous viruses and bacteria.


Some people are allergic to smoke or kitchen fire which causes throat and lung infections. Therefore, HEPA filters with activated carbon trap every fine smoke ashes caused by fires to make indoor air smokeless and odor-free.

Read Next: How to Clean and Maintain a Vacuum Cleaner?

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